September 22, 2016Comments are off for this post.

Why testicular cancer is curable?

The above statement is a popular search query. We would never be first to say that TC is curable, we prefer the word beatable. That being said, the statistics for surviving testicular cancer are very good, and it is one of the most beatble forms of cancer.

In the early 1970’s

If you were diagnosed with testicular cancer and you had early-stage testicular cancer, the survival rate was 20%. Even worse, if the cancer calls had progressed past those early stages, survival rate was around 5%.

Today

If you are diagnosed with testicular cancer today, it is one of the most beatable forms of cancer. The 5-year relative survival rate for all men with this cancer is 95%. If the cancer hasn’t spread outside the testicular (stage 1), the 5-year relative survival rate is 99%. Even if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, the rate is still 96%.

What changed the survival rates?

Dr. Lawrence Einhorn is arguably the biggest proponent for the increase in these survival rates. In 1973, Dr Einhorn joined the IU school of Medicine Faculty as their first medical oncologist. A year later, he would test a platinum based drug called Cisplatin in a clinical trial. After some trial and error, he ultimately developed a strategy to combine the Cisplatin with two additional drugs that were effective in killing testicular cancer cells.

The results of this three drug regimen (BEP) were outstanding, and are now the standard for most testicular cancer treatment protocols today. Thanks to Dr. Einhorn and his team, testicular cancer survival rates are outstanding and it is extremely beatable, even at later stages of the disease.

http://cancer.iu.edu/news-publications/Einhorn.shtml

September 22, 2016Comments are off for this post.

Why is testicular cancer caused?

Testicular Cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. Although the exact cause of most testicular cancers is unknown, there are a host of risk factors associated with testicular cancer that can increase the risk, but any male with testicles is susceptible to the disease.

To see a list of the risk factors please visit our risk factors page.

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/detailedguide/testicular-cancer-what-causes

September 22, 2016Comments are off for this post.

Why is testicular cancer bad?

Testicular Cancer, like all cancers is serious, and that can be classified by some as “bad.” There are symptoms and risk factors that can be associated with the disease. Below are some of the bad, and good news that is associated with testicular cancer.

The Bad News

  • We have one young man dying every single day from testicular cancer
  • Every hour one male is diagnosed with testicular cancer
  • Testicular Cancer is the most common cancer in males ages 15-34

The Good News

  • Testicular cancer is 99% beatable if caught in stage 1.
  • Testicular cancer is one of the most beatable types of cancer
  • If caught early, a simple surgery (orchiectomy) is all the treatment needed
  • If the cancer has spread outside the testicle, survival rates are still 95%
  • You have incredible resources and networks if diagnosed (including the Testicular Cancer Foundation) that can help you every step of the way.

September 22, 2016Comments are off for this post.

Why does testicular cancer occur?

Testicular Cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. Although the exact cause of most testicular cancers is unknown, there are a host of risk factors associated with testicular cancer that can increase the risk, but any male with testicles is susceptible to the disease.

To see a list of the risk factors please visit our risk factors page.

Source: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/detailedguide/testicular-cancer-what-causes

September 22, 2016Comments are off for this post.

Where does Testicular Cancer form?

Testicular Cancer, is developed in the sperm-producing cells knows as germ cells. More than 90% of cancers of the testicle develop in these “germ cells.” The two main germ cell tumors in men are Seminoma and Non Seminoma, and both originate in the testis.

These Germ Cell tumors in men can start in several parts of the body, including:

  • The testicles
  • The back of the abdomen near the spine (retroperitoneum)
  • The central portion of the chest between the lungs (mediastinum)
  • The lower spine
  • A small gland in the brain the pineal gland, although it is extremely rare

It is extremely important to know your body and the importance of a testicular self exam. Become familiar with the warnings signs and risk factors associated with Testicular Cancer.

September 22, 2016Comments are off for this post.

What do I do after treatment?

First, you need to celebrate.

After your treatment, and you are deemed “in remission” there is a host of follow up tests and protocols that you may follow depending on your doctor’s recommendations. Many of the tests are similar or the same tests that were done to determine your diagnosis of testicular cancer. Below are some of the standard tests, but your doctor will determine the best protocol for you.

  • Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
  • CT scan(CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
  • Serum tumor marker test: A procedure in which a sample of blood is examined to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to specific types of cancer when found in increased levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers The following 3 tumor markers are used in staging testicular cancer: Alpha – fetoprotein (AFP), Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

The results of these tests will continue to be done for some time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has come back. These tests are known as “follow up” or check ups.

Men who have had Testicular Cancer have an increased risk for developing cancer in the other testicle (don’t worry the chances are only slightly higher), so patients are advised to regularly check the other testicle and report any unusual symptoms to a doctor right away.

September 22, 2016Comments are off for this post.

How does testicular cancer affect the body?

Testicular Cancer can affect the body in many ways. Below is a list of some, but not all of the possible symptoms one might experience before being diagnosed with testicular cancer.

  • Painless lump or swelling on either testicle. If detected early, a testicular tumor may be about the size of a pea or a marble, but it can grow much larger.
  • Pain or discomfort, with or without swelling, in a testicle or the scrotum.
  • Change in the way a testicle feels or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. For example, one testicle may become more firm than the other testicle. Or, testicular cancer may cause the testicle to grow bigger or to become smaller.
  • Dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin
  • Sudden buildup of fluid in the scrotum
  • Breast tenderness or growth. Although rare, some testicular tumors produce hormones that cause breast tenderness or growth of breast tissue, a condition called gynecomastia.
  • Lower back pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and bloody sputum or phlegm can be symptoms of later-stage testicular cancer.

If you experience any of these symptoms we recommend scheduling an appointment with a doctor immediately.

September 2, 2016Comments are off for this post.

Where is testicular cancer located?

Testicular Cancer is classified into two main categories of germ cell tumors, seminoma and non seminoma. Both seminoma and non-seminoma originate in the testicles, and depending on stage (hyperlink stage to Stages page) and severity, testicular cancer can travel to other places in the body.

Types of Testicular Cancer:

More than 90% of cancers of the testicle develop in cells knows as “germ cells”. These cells are the cells that make sperm. The two main germ cell tumors in men are:

Non Seminoma – These types of germ cells are most prevalent in men in their late teens to early 30’s. There are four main subtypes of non-seminoma tumors: Embryonal carcinoma, Yolk sac carninoma, Choriocarcinoma, and Teratoma. Although there are four main subtypes, most tumors are a mix of different types, but this doesn’t necessarily change the general approach to treatment of most non seminoma cancers.

Seminoma – Seminomas tend to grow and spread slower than non seminomas. There are two main subtypes of these tumors; classical seminomas, and spermatocytic seminomas. With 95% of seminomas falling under the “classical” subtype, spermatocytic are rare, and typically occur in older men (average age of 65).

Where Does Testicular Cancer Travel?

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood: Testicular cancer originates in the testis, and depending on the stage can travel to lymph nodes, abdomen, lungs, and other parts of the body, including the brain in serious cases.

September 1, 2016Comments are off for this post.

What are Testicular Cancer Tumor Markers?

Some Testicular Cancers elevate certain substances that are released into the blood by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. These substances are linked to specific types of cancer when found in increased levels in the blood.

The tumor markers that are used to detect testicular cancer are:

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) – A protein normally produced by a fetus. Alpha-fetoprotein levels are usually undetectable in the blood of healthy adult men or women (who are not pregnant). An elevated level of alpha-fetoprotein suggests the presence of either a primary liver cancer or germ cell tumor. Also called AFP.

Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (ß-HCG) – A hormone found in the blood and urine during pregnancy. It may also be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with some types of cancer, including testicular, ovarian, liver, stomach, and lung cancers, and in other disorders. Measuring the amount of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine of cancer patients may help to diagnose cancer and find out how well cancer treatment is working. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin is a type of tumor marker. Also called beta-hCG.

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) – LDH is usually not as common in determining testicular cancer but levels can increase and indicate widespread disease. LDHis most often measured to check for tissue damage. LDH is in many body tissues, especially the heart, liver, kidney, muscles, brain, blood cells, and lungs. Other conditions for which the test may be done include: Low red blood cell count (anemia) or cancer.

*Tumor markers are measured before inguinal orchiectomy and biopsy to help diagnose testicular cancer.

Source: Cancer.gov

August 25, 2016Comments are off for this post.

What are the stages of testicular cancer?

After testicular cancer has been diagnosed tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the testicles or to other parts of the body. There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body. The stages that are used for testicular cancer are; Stage 0, Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III. Below you will find information on these stages, along with the process of determining the stage.

The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:

  • Chest x-ray: An x-rayof the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
  • CT scan(CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
  • PET scan(positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.
  • MRI(magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
  • Abdominallymph node dissection :surgical procedure in which lymph nodes in the abdomen are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. This procedure is also called lymphadenectomy. For patients with non seminoma, removing the lymph nodes may help stop the spread of disease. Cancer cells in the lymph nodes of seminoma patients can be treated with radiation therapy.
  • Serum tumor marker test: A procedure in which a sample of blood is examined to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to specific types of cancer when found in increased levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers The following 3 tumor markers are used in staging testicular cancer: Alpha – fetoprotein (AFP), Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

Tumor marker levels are measured again, after inguinal orchiectomy and biopsy, in order to determine the stage of the cancer. This helps to show if all of the cancer has been removed or if more treatment is needed. Tumor marker levels are also measured during follow-up as a way of checking if the cancer has come back.

The following stages are used for testicular cancer:

Stage 0 (Testicular Intraepithelial Neoplasia)

In stage 0abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. All tumor marker levels are normal. Stage 0 is also called testicular intraepithelial neoplasia and testicular intra-tubular germ cell neoplasia.

Stage I

In stage Icancer has formed. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IS and is determined after an inguinal orchiectomy is done.

All tumor marker levels are normal.

Stage II

Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC and is determined after an inguinal orchiectomy is done.

All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

  • In stage IIB, cancer is anywhere within the testiclespermatic cord, or scrotum; and either:
    • has spread to up to 5 lymph nodesin the abdomen; at least one of the lymph nodes is larger than 2 centimeters, but none are larger than 5 centimeters; or
    • has spread to more than 5 lymph nodes; the lymph nodes are not larger than 5 centimeters.

All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

Stage III

Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC and is determined after an inguinal orchiectomy  is done.

Tumor marker levels may range from normal to slightly above normal.

The level of one or more tumor markers is moderately above normal.

The level of one or more tumor markers is high or Cancer:

  • is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and
  • may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and
  • has not spread to distant lymph nodes or the lung but has spread to other parts of the body.

Tumor marker levels may range from normal to high.

Source: http://www.cancer.gov

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12600 Hill Country Blvd, Suite R-270 Austin, TX 78738 • info@tcancer.org • 855-390-8231

© 2017 Testicular Cancer Foundation, a 501(c)(3) registered nonprofit | Privacy Policy